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Теплицы в Исландии

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Текст на английском, но очень интересный и картинки интересные. В целом, в Исландии развито тепличное хозяйство, но сами теплицы небольшие, площадь измеряют в тыс.кв.м. Зато интересны технологии и ассортимент культур. Широко используют геотермальную энергию. Уже пять лет, как перестали импортировать огурцы. Хорошая идея - к продуктам добавляют листовки с рассказом о производителе и его портретом.

This is "The Westland" of Iceland

The ‘Westland of Iceland’ can be found just 100 km east of Reykjavik. Most greenhouse growers are concentrated around the villages Fludir and Reykholt. Whereas in the Netherlands the areas are calculated in hectares, in Iceland they are talking about square metres. Despite this the growers are doing well and the yields are no lesser than those in the Netherlands. Besides having unique challenges they all profit from the geothermal sources to heat the greenhouses.

Left: the greenhouses are warmed by geothermal heating.
Right: this cucumber greenhouse has a circular irrigation system.

To show that many different products can be grown in Iceland and to show how the heat in the earth can be used, Gunnlaugur Karlsson took us around five growers. He is the director of the only sales organisation for Icelandic fruit and vegetables: SFG. Thanks to a successful investment in an own label he was able to raise the turnover of SFG despite the import taxes that protected the Icelandic growers for decades being lifted at the start of the 2000’s.

Rocket is getting more popular.

Parsley, grown in mixed soil from Iceland and Finland.

The biggest challenge for the growers is the high labour costs. It is legally impossible to hire seasonal workers in Iceland. Flexibility in the labour market is almost non-existent, which means no temporary employees can be hired during the harvest. The labour market is also tight. Now that the economy is pulling up again the unemployment has dropped quickly to almost zero. Various growers have therefore sought employees across the border, mainly in Poland and the Baltic States. It’s legally impossible to work with flexi employees, paying pickers per kilo is also forbidden. This is a problem that a lot of growers are struggling with,

Left the packaging machine, right the packed salad.

below: overview of the lettuce in the greenhouse.


Raising air humidity
Lettuce cultivation company Hveratun can be found in Laugaras. Various types of lettuce are grown here on hydro cultures. The air humidity in Iceland is generally low, which is why the grower sprays a mist in the greenhouse. “It was a challenge to get that right, without the mist the lettuce leaves get dry edges,” explains Gunnlaugur. Rucola is becoming increasingly popular in Iceland. There is also a small area of parsley. The parsley is in a mix of Icelandic and Finnish soil. Part of the products are cut and packaged on the spot, a machine line from China was imported for this.

Lights made cucumber growing a big succes; there are no cucumber imports.

Closed irrigation system
Helgi Jakobsson and Hildur Ósk Sigurðardóttir grow cucumbers all year round on 3800 square metres. The production is 600-700 tonnes per year. The cultivation is partially lit. In the winter months the lights are on 20 hours per day, less in the summer months. The cucumbers are in a volcanic rock substrate. “The water they use here really makes the difference, the Icelandic cucumber is the tastiest,” says Gunnlaugur. The greenhouses are fitted with a closed irrigation system in which no waste water is discharged. After purification new fertilisers are added to the water to then flow along the roots of the cucumber plants.

Information about the grower on the packaging is one aspect of the success of Icelandic produce.

Tomato cultivation under lights
Tomato grower Fridheimar has an area of a few thousands of square metres of greenhouses. The greenhouses aren’t just used for the tomato cultivation; part is used as a restaurant and reception room for tourists. The grower has a yield of over 90 kilos per square metres. Hot water from three sources is used to heat the greenhouses. Thanks to the cultivation under lights tomatoes can be harvested all year round. In recent years more specialties are grown in Iceland, due to which a shortage of ordinary tomatoes threatens, explains grower Knutur. Around 80 to 85 per cent of all tomatoes in Iceland are home grown.

The yield in this tomato greenhouse is 90 kilo per square meter.

Strawberries, cherries, raspberries and blackberries
It started more as a test in which cherries trees were planted on 350 square metres at cultivation company Kvistar, which was originally a tree nursery. The trees are now fully grown and there is a yield of around 10 kilo per square metre. “The flavour of the cherries is fantastic,” according to grower Hólmfríður Geirsdóttir. The island has one other cherry grower with 50 square metres. Besides the greenhouse with cherries there are also various tunnels with strawberries.

Softfruit is grown on a small scale, left cherries, right strawberries.

“We grow the Elsanta, because the flavour is good. Every other day the harvested fruit is taken to Reykjavik.” Besides the strawberries and cherries the company also grows raspberries and blackberries. Kvistar is the only cultivation company for raspberries. “The flavour is different, so it will take some time to introduce the raspberries. We imported the plants from the Netherlands.” Despite the very limited area of a few tens of square metres this is sufficient to serve the Icelandic market. Finally, there is a row of blackberries in the greenhouse. This is also a new product that was recently introduced to the market.

In these tunnes strawberries are grown.

The strawberry season started in the second week of May. The raspberry bushes awake when the temperature is between 12 and 15 degrees. The season runs until the end of August, start of September. “It’s a vulnerable product, so we are looking for different ways to offer the soft fruit,” says Gunnlaugur. “We want to work with smaller packaging.”

Elsanta strawberries in an Icelandic tunnel.

White mushrooms
Finally, we visit the only mushroom grower on the island; Fludasveppir. The company started in 1984 and harvested 500 kilos per week then. This was seen as a good harvest, now much more is harvested per week. The total size of the mushroom market is estimated at 600 to 700 tonnes per year. Of this 500 to 600 tonnes are grown at Fludasveppir. The share on import is necessary to have competition on the market. The mushroom cultivation has a lot of potential in Iceland. What stands out is that mainly white mushrooms are grown. Only 10 per cent of cultivation consists of chestnut mushrooms and portabellas.

Upper left: blackberries are a real niche.
Lower left: Iceland has two cherry growers, this grower has 350 m2 cherries in her greenhouse.
Right: raspberries are a popular product.

Perhaps the biggest challenge for the mushroom grower is the supply of fertiliser to grow the mushrooms on. Although there are a lot of horses in the fields this is also a problem; they are in the fields so the fertiliser can’t be collected. This is why Fludasveppir makes its own fertiliser from straw from Icelandic barley. This process is tedious. Last autumn the quality of the straw was bad due to the bad weather.

Growing mushrooms in Iceland is not that easy, it starts with a shortage in fertilizer.

Part of the mushrooms are offered as raising levels of vitamin D. A claim made more often in Australia and the US. Within Europe a similar claim is more difficult to make, due to the strict rules. To be able to make this claim true the mushrooms are grown under UV lights. “We also want an eco-label on the mushrooms,” says Gunnlaugur. “I spoke to an adviser and they said we’re almost there. We meet the regulation 90 to 95%.”

Publication date: 7/6/2016

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Posted (edited)

3 часа назад, Марите сказал:

Tomato cultivation under lights
Tomato grower Fridheimar has an area of a few thousands of square metres of greenhouses. The greenhouses aren’t just used for the tomato cultivation; part is used as a restaurant and reception room for tourists. The grower has a yield of over 90 kilos per square metres.


90 кг/м2 томата!
И тут викинги преуспели! 

Тут посмотрел, на Дальнем востоке тоже используют термальные источники для отопления, но в остальной России пока это не распространено, хотя в России их хватает. Они есть в Забайкалье, в Иркутской области, в Алтайском крае, Хабаровском крае,в Тюмени, Камчатке, и т.д. 

Edited by samura
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В Сентябре поеду  к Исландским тепличникам, они заменяют натриевую межрядку на диод.

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